Robert McLuhan of the Paranormalia blog has announced that his book Randi's Prize will be released on November 1. The book will discuss the evidence for psychic functioning, and the part that skeptics have played in shaping scientific opinion about such things as telepathy, psychics, ghosts and near-death experiences:
Scepticism is a natural and healthy response to paranormal claims. We can't take at face value the notion that some 'psychics', or people with so-called psychic ability, can read minds, tell the future, or converse with the spirits of the dead, or for that matter that there is such a thing as the spirit world. These claims are antithetical to the materialist paradigm, and at the very least need to be thoroughly investigated.
So sceptics like Randi - along with others whose views I discuss in the book: Richard Wiseman, Susan Blackmore, Ray Hyman, James Alcock, David Marks, C.E.M. Hansel, etc - have a role to play. But it's wrong for sceptical scientists to imagine that these are the experts. They aren't; they're the fleas on the back of the elephant. The real experts are the parapsychologists who carry out experiments and field research.
Actually some sceptics do carry out investigations and even offer some original thinking - Susan Blackmore on out-of-body and near-death experiences, for instance. But their main concern, Blackmore included, is to dissuade their audience from taking psychic claims seriously. Polemicists like Randi consider abuse to be an appropriate response. I happen to think that empirical investigation, patient and painstaking, is a better way to understand these things than laughing and pointing and calling it 'woo-woo'.
Looked at from a historical perspective there is something really interesting going on here. To me it's as though the sceptics are patrolling the frontiers of the materialist paradigm, beating back the superstitious hordes. There's only a handful of them, the so-called 'specialists' who understand enough about parapsychology to sound knowledgeable to their audience, and create a plausible case against it. But if scientific materialism is to survive, these people have to be right.
...I should mention, though, that it's not primarily about James Randi - I just thought the prize thing would make a cool title. I'm sure there is a book to be written about him, but it would be a different sort of book, and would probably only interest those people who already understand the issues. Mine, by contrast, is mainly concerned to try to explain the challenges posed by psychic research to those who know little about it, and its implications.
By the way, if you're looking for something a little more targeted towards Randi's actual prize, make sure you read my article "The Myth of James Randi's Million Dollar Challenge".
Within atheist and skeptical ranks there's been a growing schism between 'accommodationists', and, for lack of a more appropriate term, 'dicks'. In recent times the 'accommodationist' side has started speaking more loudly (which it has to, in order to be heard over the din of the 'dicks'), with the likes of Daniel Loxton and Phil Plait promoting more civil debate rather than P.Z. Myers-ish schoolboy tirades. But the cognitive dissonance that the skeptical movement is currently experiencing may in turn just reinforce the childish behaviour: in a new entry on his blog titled "Are We Phalluses?", Jerry Coyne has taken Phil Plait to task for his 'Don't Be a Dick' speech':
What struck me most strongly about the DBAD talk, and reminded me of the Tom Johnson affair, was Plait’s complete failure to provide evidence for what he was saying. Not only did he not give a single instance of the rudeness and stridency that he finds so ubiquitous, but also gave no evidence that skeptics who behave that way have been less effective than others. This was curious because, after all, the prime requirement for good skepticism is that you give evidence for what you think, and demand it from others.
And the dickish comments come fast and furious after the blog post, including one from an actual Dick - Richard Dawkins. I had a good giggle at his curt response to the Bad Astronomer's talk:
As Jerry said, Plait quoted no examples of skeptics who scream insults in people’s face. I don’t think I have ever met, seen or heard one. But I could quote plenty of skeptics who employ ridicule, who skewer pretentiousness, stupidity and ignorance using wit. Listening to such ridicule, and reading it, is one of the great joys life has to offer. And I suspect that it is very effective.
I'm sorry...you "suspect" that it's very effective? What happened to this evidence-based reasoning that Jerry Coyne and yourself were just singing the praises of? You might like to do some studies on that before you start criticizing others.
Here's a data point for Jerry and Richard. I regularly encounter dickish behaviour from 'skeptics', and I find it offensive. I find it very difficult to read anything that the likes of Myers and Dawkins write, no matter how intelligent, without an inherent bias due to my previous experience of their dickishness. And I'm not a fan of organized religion, so I should be their target audience.
Being offensive is the easiest course of action - it just requires unstopping any filters of civility and letting the garbage pour out of your head. It takes no intelligence at all, and rarely achieves anything other than to falsely stoke the ego of the offender. I am disinclined to listen to the 'rational' arguments of a 'skeptic' that can't act rationally themselves.
On the other hand, the way things are going, organized skepticism will tear itself apart soon enough...
Regular readers will know that I criticize organized skepticism here fairly often, and with good reason. But that is not to say that I am anti-skepticism (or anti-science, as some would have it). Critical thinking skills are absolutely required if you're going to navigate Fortean pathways, as they dip off into some pretty dark and overgrown parts of the forest on occasion.
Similarly, I have on occasion criticized some things that The Bad Astronomer, Phil Plait, has said. And again, with good reason (along with some more casual ribbing). However, on the whole I think Phil is a great communicator with an infectious passion for science and the cosmos, even if he does think I'm a goofy, antiscience guy.
In July, Phil spoke at The Amazing Meeting (TAM8) in Las Vegas, the biggest skeptical group gathering of the year, and instead of rallying the troops for battle, he took a different approach: he implored them 'not to be dicks':
There's been some alarming developments in the way skepticism is being done... [I]n some specific places, the tone of what we're doing is decaying. Instead of relying on the merits of the arguments...it seems that vitriol and venom are on the rise - I'm not happy about that.
...How many of you no longer believe in those things and you became a skeptic because somebody got in your face, screaming, and calling you brain-damaged and a retard?
Now it's clear that I welcome this development, and so I gladly and genuinely want to say 'well done!' to the Bad Astronomer. But I also wanted to respond to a few of the other points he made as well - which I'll do right after you watch this video of his whole talk:
Now, my first reaction to this talk was "finally, they're getting it!" After seeing the talk being hailed on skeptical blogs as a watershed moment, my second reaction was more cynical; basically being along the lines of "if the breakthrough moment in your community is the revelation that you should not act like dicks, then your community does not have a great history to it."
And I think that latter reaction is a fair one - it's why I criticize organized skepticism so regularly, because it has some serious problems that need to be dealt with. One of those is that - despite the BA's framing of his talk in terms of a recent decay in civility - the pioneering 'skeptics' of the movement such as Gardner, Randi, Klass etc *were* dicks. Huge, honking dicks. To me, there has been no 'recent decaying' - it's just been a continuum of dickish behaviour.
A second, major problem is the fact that organized skepticism has become a belief system in itself (I noted with a grin that Phil himself mentions that "studies have shown that people who lose their faith tend to replace it with something else, with a different type of belief"). It was therefore refreshing-as-all-hell to see Phil note that himself in his talk:
Right now in this movement of ours...there's entrenched belief masking itself, i think, as rational thought. People strongly believe in skepticism so much they're not willing to question it themselves, not willing to question their own stance. And i could give you specific examples of myself as well...hubris is running rampant, and egos are just out of check, and sometimes logic in those situations is left by the wayside.
Phil notes one of the difficult aspects of being a skeptic is that it is "in many ways, a self-annihilating message - how do you convince someone they're not thinking clearly, when *they're not thinking clearly*!" Ironically, this applies in reverse on occasions when I've talked to skeptics - how you convince someone they're not thinking clearly, when they define themselves as being a clear-thinker.
Here's an example, pulled from Phil's talk:
The message we're trying to convey is hard all by its lonesome, and it's even worse when we're trying peddle this idea, when you think about what we're actually saying, of no magic, no afterlife, no higher moral authoritative father figure, no security, no happy ever after…this is a tough sell.
Yes, skepticism is a tough sell - it's basically about doubting yourself, your beliefs and assumptions 24/7. However, skepticism should *not* be about conveying the message that there is "no afterlife, no higher moral authoritative father figure" etc. There may be doubt about these things - but in the end, they are unfalsifiable, and so no true skeptic should be arguing that they don't exist as part of their central message. One of the core failings of the modern skeptical movement - and it goes back to its origins in the likes of Martin Gardner and CSICOP - is the belief that skeptics' raison d'être is to fight off 'irrational', supernatural beliefs. It has become so entrenched in the skeptical system that I'd imagine only theistic skeptics would have noticed this statement during the talk.
This mistaken acceptance of atheism and materialist belief as 'skepticism' leads me to another point: the big elephant standing in the corner wondering why Phil didn't mention his name. Despite passionately calling for an end to dickish behaviour, the Bad Astronomer avoided calling anyone in particular out, even though I'm sure we all know who the biggest 'skeptical' front appendage out there is. And though he embraced Phil's non-naming to exonerate himself, P.Z. Myers is wrong. He is a dick. Pharyngula, via both its blogger and a sizeable portion of the commenters, have lowered the tone of skeptical debate to new lows, and - given that Pharyngula is (allegedly) the premiere science blog on the planet - dragged the good name of science down with them.
But P.Z. isn't the only one (as I said, most of the pioneering skeptics have/had the dickish attitude). The point to make from Phil's 'non-naming' is that there is a severe lack of self-criticism within skeptical organizations - not only on attitude, but in fact-checking (seriously, if skeptics fact-checked some of Randi's pronouncements they would be shocked). Very few skeptics are willing to take to Pharyngula with the same enthusiasm that they bring to fighting woo - and yet the former action may, in the end, be more important to the future of the skeptical movement. I think Phil's talk goes a long way towards taking a first step in that direction.
Phil also mentions at one point that "the odds are against us..there are more of them than there are of us." It's an insular thing to say, and I think comes from a false dichotomy of 'skeptics' vs 'irrational public'. It may be a necessary idea for skeptics to hold - in terms of consolidating a community - but in my opinion it is wrong. I would quite genuinely say that I am more skeptical than, at the very least, 50% of self-described skeptics. So are some of the top researchers in ufology, near-death experiences, and other areas - and they regularly get labeled as 'woo-woos' by 'skeptics' that are not deserving of the title. Skeptics would do well to realise that the title does not get bestowed simply because you don't believe in God/magic/religion - it comes from doubting things and using critical thinking (if applicable) to come to your conclusions. By insulating themselves, skeptical 'evangelists' make it more difficult to engage with people, as they have already built a wall between them.
In my opinion, skeptical organisations need to rethink their identity - their goal should be to spread critical thinking skills, not to spread a certain belief system. Phil said it best in his talk:
I'm also of the "teach a man to fish and he'll eat for a lifetime" sort of thought...my goal is not to get rid of antiscience per se, it's to help people walk away from it themselves, to teach them how to think and to give them the ability to use reason when thinking something through.
I don't think we need to remove irrationality from the world. In fact, I would argue that in some cases, irrationality may be a psychological requirement to deal with some of the uglier aspects of this world, and beyond that is a part of human experience which has contributed wonderful ideas and art. What we do need to do is minimise harm from irrational behaviour, and *act* reasonably, and this was the key point of Phil's talk. As such, it's a message worth discussing and sharing.
In back-to-back postings on his blog Pharyngula, P.Z. Myers has taken to both Ray Kurzweil's transhumanist dreams as well as the (non-)viability of SETI. Myers, being a developmental neuroscientist, is reasonably well-placed to comment in the first case about Kurzweil's quest to recreate the brain artificially. And ironically, he echoes some of the issues I've brought up about both 'the Singularity' and with the logic of SETI. Just he's more of a dick about it:
Ray Kurzweil must be able to spin out a good line of bafflegab, because he seems to have the tech media convinced that he's a genius, when he's actually just another Deepak Chopra for the computer science cognoscenti.
...He's not just speculating optimistically, though: he's building his case on such awfully bad logic that I'm surprised anyone still pays attention to that kook.
...I'll make one more prediction. The media will not end their infatuation with this pseudo-scientific dingbat, Kurzweil, no matter how uninformed and ridiculous his claims get.
...If you're an acolyte of Kurzweil, you've been bamboozled. He's a kook.
I've never been a fan of SETI, the search for extraterrestrial intelligence. It's like playing the lottery obsessively, throwing down lots of money in hopes of a big payoff, and I don't play the lottery, either.
I'd really like to know if Seth Shostak is innumerate enough to play the lottery, though, because his recent claim that we stand a good chance of discovering extraterrrestrial intelligence within 25 years. All right, bring it: let's see your evidence for such a claim.
Now firstly, I have to say that I find his willingness to offer criticism refreshing. Skeptics generally conform to certain internal rules and rarely self-criticize, and at the moment SETI are well and truly considered part of the skeptical community, while Kurzweil sits in a seat with a good view within the tech-pantheon. On the other hand, it just seems more of "angry Paul" that we've come to know and laugh at...P.Z. seems to either have some sort of anger problem, or perhaps he just knows how to butter his bread and keep the page visits flowing. There's some good points in there, but in the end his attitude will just work against him. As George Dvorsky mentioned at Sentient Developments, "Let's lose the ad hominem".
Makes you wonder if there's a mathematical formula that will tell you how long it will take for Myers to marginalize himself into an audience of one.
Who's a skeptic, and who's a believer? That's the first thing that crossed my mind when I came across the 'In Memoriam' slides presented at the recent skeptical gathering in Las Vegas, TAM8. For some absurd reason, it was deemed necessary to have two separate slide shows featuring the names and photos of those who left this mortal coil in the past year - one for "Skeptics", one for "paranormal and pseudoscience believers".
So in the latter category we have the likes of Mac Tonnies, an atheist with an interest in Fortean topics who enjoyed speculating about possibilities, alongside Christian 'end-times' zealot Charles Meade. Also thrown in are the likes of long-time UFO investigator Richard Hall, a man who had extremely intelligent things to say about the phenomenon, and UFO experiencer Lonnie Zamora, of whom Project Blue Book investigators remarked that there was "no question about [his] reliability. He is a serious police officer, a pillar of his church, and a man well versed in recognizing airborne vehicles in his area. He is puzzled by what he saw and frankly, so are we." These are the "paranormal believers".
In the skeptics section we have Martin Gardner, who was a theist, and whose beliefs and biases imposed themselves in many of his debunkings, to the detriment of scientific investigation. Happily, Michael Thalbourne is included in the skeptics section, though he was a long-time parapsychology researcher but is represented only as a 'psychologist' in the slideshow - I'm inclined to wonder whether one of his papers was to the liking of 'skeptical believers' and so he was given honorary membership. As for baby Dana McCaffery, the victim of a pertussis outbreak in Australia - while I think her tragic death serves as a harsh reminder of impact of anti-vaccination campaigns, her inclusion simply shows that these lists are not so much 'skeptics' vs 'believers', as "our side" vs "the other side".
An interesting short commentary from vocal atheist Sam Harris on the topic of death:
Refreshing to see an honest response from Harris - a neuroscientist - when it comes to the fate of consciousness after death ("I don’t know what happens after the physical brain dies. I don’t know what the relationship between consciousness and the physical world is.")
Previously on TDG:
The cult of Randi continues to grow, but it has to be admitted that they are doing it in style. Tickets have gone on sale for The Amaz!ng Meeting London in October this year, with the line-up including British actor/writer/comedian Stephen Fry, Boing Boing's Cory Doctorow, Graham Linehan (creator of The IT Crowd, Black Books, and Father Ted), science writer Marcus Chown, Richard Dawkins, and Alan Moore. Whoah, what?! Back up a second...Alan Moore, mingling with the foot soldiers of rationalism? Now that I'd pay to see. Joining the stellar list of guests are the usual skeptical suspects: Richard Wiseman, P.Z. Myers, Susan Blackmore, Simon Singh and D.J. Grothe, among others. Full details at the link above.
Speaking of Alan Moore, the legendary graphic novelist's most recent project has been Dodgem Logic, an old-style-underground-zine-cum-psychedelic-Beano-type-thing "colliding" an eclectic bunch of topics, from politics to magick, to "see what happens". Here he is discussing Issue 3 of his new project (warning, not for the easily offended...holy crap I laughed though):
I'd take an Alan Moore lecture above a P.Z. Myers one any day...although to be fair, Myers probably would too - it seems he's a bit of an Alan Moore fan-boi. Like I said, I think TAM London tickets this year are well worth their price...get along if you're able. Tickets will *not* last, so be quick.
The Associated Press has reported that the godfather of the modern skeptical movement, Martin Gardner, has passed away. Gardner exerted a profound influence upon numerous academics via his 'Mathematical Games' column in Scientific American, was a skilled and knowledgable contributor to the (performance) magic community, and with his 1952 book Fads and Fallacies in the Name of Science is seen by many as the man who kick-started skeptical activism in the modern age. His long-time friend James Randi has written a short blog about his passing:
Martin Gardner has died. I have dreaded to type those words, and Martin would not have wanted to know that I’m so devastated at what I knew – day to day – had to happen very soon. I’m glad to report that his passing was painless and quick. That man was one of my giants, a very long-time friend of some 50 years or so. He was a delight, a very bright spot in my firmament, one to whom I could always turn to with a question or an idea, with any strange notion I could invent, and with any complaint or comment I could come up with.
...He was such a good man, a productive and useful member of our society, and I can anticipate the international reaction to his passing. His books – so many of them – remain to remind us of his contributions to us all. His last one was dedicated to me, and I am just so proud of that fact, so very proud…
It will take a while, but Martin would want me to get on with my life, so I will.
Phil Plait has also written about Gardner's passing, and Scientific American has reposted their 2005 profile of him as a tribute. For a video profile of the man, see the following 1996 documentary hosted by David Suzuki:
About the only people that might not be as glowing in their summation of Gardner's life are those involved in off-beat science and the paranormal - subject areas against which Gardner wrote numerous polemics, befitting his role as a founder of CSICOP (now CSI). My own investigation of Gardner's 'skepticism' has revealed a man who was certainly not immune to writing biased, erroneous, and misleading tracts - coincidentally, I was only weeks away from publishing a critique of his 'debunking' of the mediumship of Leonora Piper (which I'll withhold for a while as a mark of respect). But all of us certainly have our moments of error; and on balance, one must say that Gardner inspired and helped a large number of people, and the growth of knowledge, in a good way over his long life.
Martin Gardner was 95 years old.
A long-simmering feud came to a public head yesterday, with skeptical heavyweight Paul Kurtz - founder of CSICOP (now CSI), the Council for Secular Humanism, the Center for Inquiry (CFI) and Prometheus Books - tendering his resignation from the Center for Inquiry. Kurtz's decision comes nearly a year after he was (in his words) "unceremoniously ousted as Chairman of the Center for Inquiry/Transnational on June 1, 2009". In the interim, Kurtz has been highly critical of the CFI for participating in the growing trend of hostility and intolerance towards religion:
...the problem of atheist fundamentalism is a very real one and needs to be faced. We are not going to solve the massive problems facing civilization on a global scale by merely attacking and ridiculing religion. Questions about human rights, abuse of power, and the creation of meaning and value for a secular age are as vital today as ever.
Coming from the guy who founded, and has been the driving force behind, the highly intolerant organization CSICOP, Kurtz can probably afford to step down off his high horse on the particular criticism of ridicule. I think the more central problem is that the 84-year-old Kurtz is, towards the end of his life, losing control of his vision for a secular world. Nevertheless, his shock resignation is another strong indicator that all is not well in Skepticland, with growing friction between 'militant atheist' skeptics, and 'accomodationist' (or religiously inclined) skeptics (see this blog by Daniel Loxton, and 230-odd-comments, for a taste).