One of the striking features about Stonehenge is how lonely it feels, standing bare upon the fields of Wiltshire (if one ignores more modern constructions). But was it that way in the past? Smithsonian Magazine has a fascinating feature on new research that suggests the megaliths of Stonehenge were just one part of a much larger complex. Using magnetometers and ground-penetrating radars, Vince Gaffney and his team of archaeologists have spent four-years gathering information on what still lies beneath the soil of four square miles of the countryside surrounding England's most famous megalithic monument:
The results are astonishing. The researchers have found buried evidence of more than 15 previously unknown or poorly understood late Neolithic monuments: henges, barrows, segmented ditches, pits. To Gaffney, these findings suggest a scale of activity around Stonehenge far beyond what was previously suspected. “There was sort of this idea that Stonehenge sat in the middle and around it was effectively an area where people were probably excluded,” Gaffney told me, “a ring of the dead around a special area—to which few people might ever have been admitted....Perhaps there were priests, big men, whatever they were, inside Stonehenge having processions up the Avenue, doing...something extremely mysterious. Of course that sort of analysis depends on not knowing what’s actually in the area around Stonehenge itself. It was terra incognita, really.”
A new paper on arXiv.org offers a novel solution to the mystery of how the ancient Egyptians moved millions of massive stone blocks around: by rolling them inside a 12-sided wooden frame. Noting the orthodox theory - that the blocks were put on sleds which were pulled, with the sand in front of the sled being constantly lubricated with - results in a not insignificant level of friction, they suggest that the dodecagon idea would be a far more efficient method of moving these heavy blocks:
As an alternative to dragging large blocks, one can consider
rolling the blocks. Rolling a prism of 4 sides is not efficient, but
adding wooden rods to the surface can effectively increase the number of sides. The crew can then pull on a rope wrapped around and passing over the top of the block. In this configuration, static friction acts in the direction of the desired motion, rather than opposing the motion. In effect the block and rope combination becomes a 2:1 pulley, though the pulley was not yet formally "known" to the Egyptians at that time. The rods can be re-used many times, and there is no need to to transport large quantities of water for lubrication.
...By attaching 12 identical wooden rods to the faces of the block, one effectively transforms the block into a dodecagon prism with very little added mass, much lower ground pressure, and with good cross country mobility... It would seem that some variation of rolling the blocks should now be considered to be among the “best” and most likely method used to move the stones for the great pyramids
The paper goes into more of the physics behind the idea, as well as offering some experimental data to back the authors' theory up.
(h/t Norman R.)
You might also like: Has This Retired Construction Worker Figured Out How Stonehenge Was Built?
I'm sure in this day and age there are no more archaeological secrets to be discovered. Wait, what?
A monster mouth doorway, ruined pyramid temples and palace remains emerged from the Mexican jungle as archaeologists unearthed two ancient Mayan cities. Found in the southeastern part of the Mexican state of Campeche, in the heart of the Yucatan peninsula, the cities were hidden in thick vegetation and hardly accessible.
"Aerial photographs helped us in locating the sites," expedition leader Ivan Sprajc, of the Research Center of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts (ZRC SAZU), said. Sprajc and his team found the massive remains as they further explored the area around Chactun, a large Maya city discovered by the Slovenian archaeologist in 2013.
But wait, there are more lost cities!
Most of us grew up hearing about amazing, mysterious megalithic structures from all over the world: Stonehenge in England, Baalbek in Lebanon, the temples of Egypt, Sacsaywaman in Peru. But very rarely did we hear - and thus know - that Asia also features a plethora of incredible stone structures. The video above gives a quick introduction to some of these megalithic sites of the East...a topic that I'm pretty sure Graham Hancock will be covering in his upcoming book.
Any readers visited these sites? Feel free to comment and add more information!
(via The Cosmic Joker)
You might also like:
- The Pyramids of China
- A Match made in Heaven: Graham Hancock and the Massive Megaliths of Baalbek
- Graham Hancock Visits the Ancient Megalithic Site of Göbekli Tepe
- 7000 Years Before Stonehenge: Unveiling Göbekli Tepe
- Did the Great Sphinx of Egypt Originally Have a Different Head?
- Have Russians Discovered Ancient 'Super-Megalithic' Architecture in Siberia?
- Ancient Amazonian People Built Massive Circular Structures Before the Rainforest Existed
While Graham Hancock, Robert Schoch & John Anthony West are undoubtedly 'house-hold names' in the Alt-history movement, the same might not be said of Randall Carlson.
Which is a bloody, unforgivable shame.
I first learned of Randall fairly recently, thanks in large part to the Podfather himself, Joe Rogan, who had him on his show The Joe Rogan Experience last May, and if you haven't listened to it yet, you should correct that mistake immediately; but if you don't have 3 hours to spare right now in order to listen to that JRE episode, here's a shorter video composed of several of Randall's lectures, in which he explains his interpretation of what the arcane tradition of the ancients' lost knowledge ("the essence of the Great Work," as he puts it) was all about: To show us 'a way out' from the constant cycles of destruction & rebuilding, brought upon our tiny paradisiacal planet by the cosmic envoys of Death —rogue comets & meteors.
"We are sitting ducks in a cosmic shooting gallery" he says; a claim which during the days of Velikovsky was considered fear-mongering pseudoscience, but that now is pretty much the standard discourse of mainstream Academia; for now we have mounting evidence that cosmic impacts are indeed much more frequent than we'd like them to be, and that comets may have had a key role in the modifying of our climate, as well as the fall of many cultures now lost in the sands of time. Randall's mission in declassifying the Hermetic Secrets, is to ensure our civilization does not suffer the fate of our forefathers, and according to him that's the whole reason why Momma Gaia raised us silly monkeys in the 1st place —very McKennaesque of him, yet I find it a fascinating idea nonetheless.
Carlson is one of Graham Hancock's collaborators for Magicians of the Gods, the update to his best-seller Fingerprints of the Gods, so I expect that when the book comes out we'll hear a lot more from Randall. Incidentally, my pals Darren & Graham of The Grimerica Show managed to book him for an interview this Saturday, so if you have some questions about his work in Catastrophism & Sacred Geometry, I'll be happy to pass them along :)
You can also find more about him at his website, Sacred Geometry International.
Did Ireland convert to Christianity as a result of Halley's Comet having a close encounter with the Earth around the year 532 ACE?
Photo credit: Michael Turtle
When it comes to ancient pyramids, the massive structures erected by the Egyptians on the Giza Plateau receive much of the focus. But on the other side of the world, at Caral in Peru, lies another pyramid complex of similar antiquity, constructed by the Norte Chico people ca. 2600-2000 BCE. The fact that people on both sides of the planet happened to build pyramids at the same time in history is, we are told, a coincidence...your mileage may vary!
One of the reasons for the lack of knowledge about Caral may be the difficulty travelers encounter in reaching this remote location - despite the intriguing ruins being listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site. Thankfully, Australian travel writer Michael Turtle undertook the journey, and has blogged about his visit to Caral, and included some fantastic photos that he took while there, such as the one at the top of this post. Click through on the link above to see a bunch more.
While in South America, Michael also visited the temple complex of Chavin de Huantar (also in Peru), which dates back to around 1000BCE. In his blog he mentions the fascinating link that the temple seems to have with shamanic plant use, including the mescaline-containing cactus San Pedro and the DMT-containing seeds of the 'Yopo' tree, Anadenanthera peregrina. For more on this topic, see Mike Jay's article "Enter the Jaguar", available in full as a sample article (PDF) on the website of our anthology series, Darklore, from which the excerpt below is taken:
Chavín’s architecture...can be understood as a visionary technology, designed to externalize and intensify these intoxications and to focus them into a particular inner journey. This in turn offers an explanation for why so many might have made such long and arduous pilgrimages to its ceremonies. It wasn’t necessary to visit Chavín simply to obtain San Pedro or Anadenanthera. Both grow wild in abundance in the Andes; there could hardly have been, as in some cultures ancient and modern, a priestly monopoly on their use. Those who came to Chavín weren’t coerced into doing so; it drew participants from a wide area over which it exercised no political or military control. The Chavín ceremony, rather, would have offered a ritual on a spectacular scale, where the effects of the plants could be experienced en masse within an architecture designed to enhance and direct them.
Within this environment, participants could congregate to enter a shared otherworld, and also submit themselves to a highly charged individual vision quest. The sunken plaza might, as the reliefs suggest,
have harnessed the heightened consciousness of San Pedro to a mass ritual of dancing and chanting; the participants might subsequently have ascended the temple steps individually to receive a further sacrament of powdered Anadenanthera seeds administered to them by the priests via bone snuffing tubes. As this was taking hold, they would be led into the chambers within the pyramid where they could experience their DMT-enhanced visions in solitary darkness. Here, the amplified rushing of water and the growls and roars of the unseen participants around them would enclose them in a supernatural world, one where ordinary consciousness could be abandoned, the body itself metamorphosed and the world seen from an enhanced, superhuman perspective – analogous, perhaps, to the uncanny night vision of the feline predator. The development of the subterranean chambers over centuries would reflect the logistical demands of ever greater numbers of participants willing to enter the jaguar portal and submit themselves to a life-changing ordeal that offered a glimpse of the eternal world beyond the human.
If we want an analogy for its function drawn from Western culture, it might be the Eleusinian Mysteries, originating as they did in subterranean chambers near Athens a little later than Chavín, around 700BC. Like Chavín, Eleusis persisted for nearly a thousand years, under different empires, in its case Greek and Roman; like Chavín – and like the Hajj at Mecca today – it was a pilgrimage site which drew its participants from a diverse network of cultures spanning virtually the known world
Visit Michael Turtle's blog for more fascinating articles exploring the ancient sites of the world.
Photo credit: Michael Turtle
Two mysteries for the price of one: were some parts of the Amazon rainforests actually grassy plains just a few thousand years ago, and why (and how) were the ancient people of that area building massive circular earthworks? Environmental scientist John Francis Carson and his colleagues are trying to find the answers:
A series of square, straight and ringlike ditches scattered throughout the Bolivian and Brazilian Amazon were there before the rainforest existed, a new study finds.
...Since the 1980s, deforestation has revealed massive earthworks in the form of ditches up to 16 feet (5 meters) deep, and often just as wide... These human-made structures remain a mystery: They may have been used for defense, drainage, or perhaps ceremonial or religious reasons.
Carson and his colleagues wanted to explore the question of whether early Amazonians had a major impact on the forest. They focused on the Amazon of northeastern Bolivia, where they had sediment cores from two lakes nearby major earthworks sites. These sediment cores hold ancient pollen grains and charcoal from long-ago fires, and can hint at the climate and ecosystem that existed when the sediment was laid down as far back as 6,000 years ago.
An examination of the two cores — one from the large lake, Laguna Oricore, and one from the smaller lake, Laguna Granja — revealed a surprise: The very oldest sediments didn't come from a rainforest ecosystem at all. In fact, the Bolivian Amazon before about 2,000 to 3,000 years ago looked more like the savannas of Africa than today's jungle environment.
The massive megaliths found at the Temple of Jupiter at Baalbek always make for my all-time favourite "WTF?!" images of ancient sites. I posted the historical image above a while back here on the Grail just to share the love, but now we've perhaps got an even better one: our good friend Graham Hancock has posted an image to Facebook of him atop one of the Baalbek megaliths, taken by his wonderful photographer wife, Santha Faiia:
The visit to Baalbek is a part of Graham's research for his upcoming 'sequel' to the best-selling Fingerprints of the Gods, titled Magicians of the Gods. Be sure to like his Facebook page (you can do so by clicking the Like button in the image above) or follow him on Twitter for ongoing updates regarding his research. And of course, you can read much more about Graham and his body of work at his official website.
[Before you read this book review, know that I not only intend to offer my opinion on the novel, but also explore the historical events of the Mexican Conquest in some depth. If you are a complete neophyte in the topic & want to enjoy Graham's War God without 'spoilers', then I suggest you close this link & open the Amazon page to order it instead, since my ultra-ultra short review is "I liked it, get the book" anyway --same goes for anyone daunted by the prospect of reading a 3000+-word-long essay, which will only reinforce your decision to buy War God. For the undecided (and the masochists) please enjoy]
Broken spears lie in the roads;
We have torn our hair in our grief
The houses are roofless now, and their walls
Are red with blood.
Worms are swarming in the streets and plazas,
And the walls are spattered with gore
The water has turned red, as if it were dyed
And when we drink it,
It has the taste of brine
We have pounded our hands in despair
Against the adobe walls,
For our inheritance, our city, is lost and dead
The shields of our warriors were its defense.
But they could not save it.
We have chewed dry twigs and salt grasses:
We have filled our mouths with dust and bits of adobe.
We have eaten lizards, rats and worms
When we had meat, we ate it almost raw.
Weep my people
Know that with these disasters
We have lost the Mexican nation
The water has turned bitter
Our food is bitter
These are the acts of the Giver of Life.
~From the book The Broken Spears, chapter XV
As a literary fan, I honestly don't know which would be harder: To write a completely fictional story, or a fictionalized account of a true historical event. The open-ended freedom of pure fiction could turn into a double-edged sword in the hands of an inexperienced writer; whereas with fictionalized events, you wouldn't be allowed to surprise the reader by deviating too much from what was actually recorded in the History books – unless you're Quentin Tarantino, that is.
Which is why I was very interested in reading Graham Hancock's War God, his second published work of fiction & a novelized exploration of an event I probably know better than most: The Spanish Conquest of Mexico in the 16th century. ... Read More »