An interesting story at the Nature website, by the most excellent Jo Marchant, regarding the finding that an iron bead from the very beginnings of Dynastic Egypt has been found to have been made out of a meteorite: "Iron in Egyptian relics came from space".
The 5,000-year-old iron bead might not look like much, but it hides a spectacular past: researchers have found that the ancient Egyptian trinket is made from a meteorite.
The result, published on 20 May in the journal Meteoritics & Planetary Science, explains how ancient Egyptians obtained iron millennia before the earliest evidence of iron smelting in the region, solving an enduring mystery. It also hints that the ancient Egyptians regarded meteorites highly as they began to develop their religion.
...Researchers have discovered only a handful of ancient Egyptian iron artefacts made before the sixth century BC, when the first evidence for iron smelting in ancient Egypt appears in the archaeological record. All come from high status graves such as that of King Tutankhamun. "Iron was very strongly associated with royalty and power," says Johnson.
Objects made of such divine material were believed to guarantee their deceased owner priority passage into the afterlife.
Campbell Price, a curator of Egypt and Sudan at the Manchester Museum who was not a member of the study team, emphasizes that nothing is known for certain about the Egyptians’ religious beliefs before the advent of writing. But he points out that later on, during the time of the Pharaohs, the gods were believed to have bones made of iron.
Perhaps meteorites originally inspired this belief, he speculates, with these celestial rocks interpreted as the physical remains of gods falling to Earth.
Robert Bauval and Adrian Gilbert wrote about the veneration and use of iron meteorites by the ancient Egyptians in their 1994 book The Orion Mystery - though as they point out in the book, the fact that meteorites played a role in the formation of religious ideas has been known to Egyptologists since 1933, based on the work of British Egyptologist G. A. Wainwright. In The Orion Mystery, Bauval and Gilbert note that "the Ancient Egyptian name for iron was bja...[and] bja is mentioned repeatedly in the Pyramid Texts in connection with the 'bones' of the star kings." For instance, in PT1454 we find the passage "My bones are iron (bja) and my limbs are the imperishable stars."
As these passages show, there was a belief that when the departed kings became stars, their bones became iron, the heavenly material (meteorites) of which the star gods were made. Such cosmic iron objects were the only material evidence of a tangible land in the
sky populated by star souls, and it was easy to see why the stars were thought to be made from bja. Since the souls of departed kings were the stars, they too had bones made of iron.
Bauval and Gilbert also note a number of other similar examples of meteorites being venerated across various cultures:
There is evidence of religious cults based on the veneration of sacred meteorites in the ancient world. It is well known that the Greeks regarded Delphi as the 'navel' of the world. However, the omphalos stone which marked the spot was not the original fetish of Delphi. There was originally a rough stone, believed to have been cast down to earth by the titan Kronos. The Delphians believed their stone to be the one cast down by Kronos and called it Zeus Baetylos, a term usually taken to mean meteorite by historians. Extant drawings show the Zeus Baetylos as ovoid in shape, and about the size of a cannonball. In view of its cosmic origins and characteristic shape, the Zeus Baetylos was almost certainly a meteorite. A similar stone was shown to the historian Pausanias (second century AD) at the town of Gythium, which the locals called Zeus-Kappotas (Zeus fallen down). This was probably also a meteorite. Pliny (AD23-79) also reported that a 'stone which fell from the sun' was worshipped at Potideae and that others had fallen at Aigos-Potamus and at Abydos, near the Hellespont.
The cult of meteorites was particularly rife in Phoenicia and Syria. At Emessa (Horns), for example, was the shrine of the god Ela-Gabal or Elagabalus, where a sacred relic was described as 'a black, conical stone'; the chronicler Herodianus tells us that the Emessians 'solemnly assert it to have fallen from the sky...' Not far from Emessa, in the temple of Zeus-Hadad, at Heliopolis-Baalbek, were 'black conical stones'. Zeus-Casios, a counterpart of Zeus-Hadad, had his abode on Mount Casios and also had a baetylos sacred to him. In ancient Phrygia (central Turkey) the Great Mother of the Gods, Cybele, was represented at the temple of Pessinus by a black stone said to have fallen from the sky.22 The Cybele cult was particularly widespread and was adopted by the Romans who took it as far as France and England.
There are many other examples of meteorite worship in many places of the world. This is quite understandable because ancient man saw the meteorite as the material representation of the sky gods and, perhaps more specifically, the star gods. We surely do not need any further examples to make the point that the Benben Stone kept inside the Temple of the Phoenix may have been a conical meteorite.
I've also heard it said that the Black Stone in the Kaaba at Mecca is a meteorite, but I'm not sure of the source on that. A fascinating topic!
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It's easy to be a Dan Brown critic: just laugh down your nose at his overly florid descriptive phrases, complain about other great authors being ignored, and encourage readers to join with you in hating the man and his books. Nearly all such reviews, however, miss the point – Brown's work is not meant for the literati, but simply as page-turning escapism. And that is where he excels - anyone that disputes the man's ability to keep readers up late at night reading 'just one more chapter' obviously hasn't tried to write a book of that type before. It's a talent, and it is what most of Brown's readers want from his work – not to 'work' their way through the novel as some sort of endurance event, but as a sprint, either after work or while on holiday, whisking them away to exotic locations on a thrill-a-minute adventure. The other arrow in Brown's quiver is his ability to take a location with fascinating history behind it, and use it as a city-size puzzle for the reader to try and fit together as the action progresses. Between the page-turning, and the hit of satisfaction to the reader as they complete more of the puzzle, his books are casual-reader-cocaine.
Dan Brown seems well aware of the ridiculousness of his fun thrillers occupying the stratosphere of book-selling – in the new book there seem to be parodic hat-tips to other publishing phenomena 50 Shades of Grey and The Girl Who... series. Certainly, there are plenty of other authors out there with Brown's skills (and more), and this doesn't seem to be something Brown doesn't know. They, however, weren't fortunate enough to hit upon the highly combustible mix that Brown put together with The Da Vinci Code - a combination of page-turner, puzzler, AND one 'big idea' that caught fire: that the Catholic Church covered up secrets, in particular the importance of the 'sacred feminine'. Though the success of that one book guaranteed Dan Brown massive sales of succeeding books regardless of their content, even Brown himself couldn't replicate the alchemy of The Da Vinci Code with his next book, The Lost Symbol, even though he seemed to have all the same ingredients, just with a change of big idea. To many though, it was the oversize helping of the 'big idea' in The Lost Symbol that ruined the mix, overwhelming the taste of the puzzles and making the meal difficult to digest quickly.
So with the release of his latest novel, Inferno, I was interested to see what approach Dan Brown might take to try and recapture the magic of The Da Vinci Code. I knew already that he had selected Florence as the location, and thought it an ingenious choice: the city has historical roots, both orthodox and esoteric, that stretched down as deep as the hell of one of its favourite sons, Dante Alighieri. And speaking of that famous Florentine, Brown also stated he was going to use the great Italian poet's classic of the same name as the basis for the plot of his new book. My expectations were high, and in my fun 'primer' Inside Dan Brown's Inferno, I explored the roads (and back-alleys) of Florentine history that I thought the best-selling author was likely to walk down in his own Inferno.
So how did I go in predicting the elements of Inferno? My chapter on Dante's life and literature would certainly have been helpful to readers of Brown's new novel, giving them essential background material to better understand the references made in the book (his love of Beatrice, his expulsion from Florence, the content of his Inferno, etc.). But those topics were a given really; not so much any sort of psychic skill on my part. In terms of locations in Florence I covered many that Brown placed within his adventure: the Boboli Gardens,
What sort of view did the ancient aliens have, as they flew back to Nibiru, of the magnificent structures they built?* Check out this nice little gallery of ancient structures as seen from space. If you want to use Google Earth to fly around a bit in each location, check out the latitude/longitude information I posted a fair while back in this Google Earth tour.
Above: Angkor Wat from space.
Below: Angkor Wat from not quite so far above the ground.
* Look, I'm not saying it was aliens. But...
When Dan Brown tasted mega-success with his book The Da Vinci Code (selling upwards of 80 million copies), he did so on the back of seminal research by the team of Henry Lincoln, Michael Baigent and Richard Leigh, with their book The Holy Blood and the Holy Grail. But at that time, Brown was just the most recent of a number of authors and artists who had used this book - based on original research by Henry Lincoln in the 1960s - as their inspiration. The entire topic of the Priory of Sion and the mystery of Rennes le Chateau would likely have never 'caught fire' in the English language speaking world without the groundwork laid by Lincoln.
But with Henry now in his 80s, plans are now being made to archive and preserve the original research and documentation related to this influential body of work. For those who would like to assist in this goal, an IndieGoGo fund-raising project is now underway to help set this archive up:
From its inception, one man has been intimately involved in the extraordinary research which has led to changes in the world’s thinking about Christianity, the role of women and … even more importantly … the realization that we have much still to learn about the beliefs, the knowledge and the skills of our remote ancestors.
Now in his ninth decade, the necessity to preserve Henry Lincoln’s archive has become a priority.
Documents, photographs, recordings, books, films, diagrams, scripts, maps and manuscripts demonstrate the growth of the hypotheses and the many detours and stumbling blocks, which have led to new ideas and new attitudes. Future scholars will find that the contents of this archive can help in the understanding of many of the changes in society, which came in the second half of the twentieth century.
Whether Henry Lincoln’s arguments are accepted or not, their effect has been undeniable.
While it would be nice to see someone like Dan Brown chip in for such a worthwhile project, I'm sure there's enough interest in the wider community to get this project to it's goal.
When Dan Brown’s new thriller “Inferno” is published May 14, one thing his readers will look for are clues to solving the puzzles that he sprinkles inside his book and on his dust jackets...
Here’s one tip: it appears certain that Professor Langdon will need to draw upon his old algebra lessons. In a mystery yet to be deciphered, it turns out that the book’s publication date wasn’t chosen by random.
“It is written 5-14-13, which read backwards 3.1415 – the value of pi,” said Suzanne Herz, a Doubleday senior vice president. Ms. Herz declined to reveal how the value of pi relates to the book’s storyline, saying that would be for readers to discover.
Scooped! I posted the video at the top of this story on February 21, and wrote about it in my book (indeed, the fictional 'introduction' to Inside Dan Brown's Inferno is built around this hidden code), after getting the tip from one of the fantastic commenters on The Cryptex ('RalphK').
The inclusion of pi may be related simply to Dante's circles of hell in his Inferno. However, there's other more likely ways that it might be included - notably, the secret history of the ancient sage Pythagoras and his veneration by some of the drivers of the Renaissance. You can find out the full details in Inside Dan Brown's Inferno (did I mention it's only $2.99?).
Click on the cover below to go get a copy:
Israeli archaeologists have discovered
Jesus' Fortress of Solitude a massive stone structure at the bottom of the Sea of Galilee in Israel:
The mysterious structure is cone shaped, made of "unhewn basalt cobbles and boulders," and weighs an estimated 60,000 tons the researchers said... Rising nearly 32 feet (10 meters) high, it has a diameter of about 230 feet (70 meters).
...The structure was first detected in the summer of 2003 during a sonar survey of the southwest portion of the sea. Divers have since been down to investigate, they write in the latest issue of the International Journal of Nautical Archaeology.
"Close inspection by scuba diving revealed that the structure is made of basalt boulders up to 1 m (3.2 feet) long with no apparent construction pattern," the researchers write in their journal article. "The boulders have natural faces with no signs of cutting or chiselling. Similarly, we did not find any sign of arrangement or walls that delineate this structure."
They say it is definitely human-made and probably was built on land, only later to be covered by the Sea of Galilee as the water level rose. "The shape and composition of the submerged structure does not resemble any natural feature. We therefore conclude that it is man-made and might be termed a cairn," the researchers write.
Based on nearby megalithic sites, such as the monumental site of Khirbet Beteiha, 19 miles to the north-east of the submerged structure, researchers believe that the mysterious monument may date back more than 4000 years.
In 1996 in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, Italian mineralogist Vincenzo de Michele spotted an unusual yellow-green gem in the middle of one of Tutankhamun's necklaces. The jewel was tested and found to be glass, but intriguingly it is older than the earliest Egyptian civilisation.
Working with Egyptian geologist Aly Barakat, they traced its origins to unexplained chunks of glass found scattered in the sand in a remote region of the Sahara Desert. But the glass is itself a scientific enigma. How did it get to be there and who or what made it?
...An Austrian astrochemist Christian Koeberl had established that the glass had been formed at a temperature so hot that there could be only one known cause: a meteorite impacting with Earth. And yet there were no signs of a suitable impact crater, even in satellite images.
...In 1908, a massive explosion flattened 80 million trees in Tunguska, Siberia. Although there was no sign of a meteorite impact, scientists now think an extraterrestrial object of some kind must have exploded above Tunguska. Wasson wondered if a similar aerial burst could have produced enough heat to turn the ground to glass in the Egyptian desert.
Volume 3 of The Heretic Magazine is now available for sale, and returns with another stellar line-up of material from the likes of Robert Schoch, Tim Wallace-Murphy, Mark Oxbrow and Robert Eisenman. The Heretic is a magazine project created by two of our good friends, editor Andrew Gough and designer Mark James Foster (Mark has worked on Darklore with me, and was also the designer behind Sub Rosa, so you'll definitely get a similar vibe to some of TDG's own projects).
Our current edition contains 16 lushly designed articles written by a variety of cross disciplinary experts and subject area enthusiasts in the fields of Alternative History, Lost Civilisations and Technologies, Mysteries and Conundrums, Rennes-le-Château, the Occult, Politics, Science and more. No magazine offers more specialized esoteric content than The Heretic.
Edited and collated by Andrew Gough, Volume 3 features (alphabetically) Sol Aris, Dawn Bramadat, Miguel Conner, Peter Cresswell, Robert Eisenman, Ralph Ellis, Robert Feather, Brien Foerster, Mark Foster, Andrew Gough, Mark Oxbrow, Jack Minier, Tim Wallace-Murphy, Madlen Namro, Margaret Robertson, Robert Schoch and Richard Webster. Once again we have compiled a bumper crop of thought-provoking articles and features.
Our latest edition is available NOW in two digital formats: firstly as a multi-touch iBook for iPad and secondly as a Kindle edition. The two versions are very different and the richest experience will be gained from the iPad version. We have designed the magazine primarily for the iPad, but are also offering the Kindle edition for those readers who are interested in our content, yet do not own an iPad.
The Heretic's website has direct links for purchasing the magazine from both the iTunes store and various Amazons around the world.
[Visit The Heretic Magazine]
Eight fascinating topics that should be in the next Dan Brown book
Dan Brown and his publishers have released a limited amount of information about his upcoming novel Inferno, most notably that it will be set in the Italian city of Florence, and that it will involve one of the great pieces of literature, the Inferno by Dante Alighieri (the first part of his Divine Comedy). Florence is a fantastic location for a novel: Dante, Michelangelo, Galileo, da Vinci and Machiavelli all hailed from the city, and as the 'birthplace of the Renaissance' under the patronage of the Medici family, it is filled with architectural and artistic treasures. But beyond some of the obvious locations, such as the great cathedral that dominates the city sky-line, the Duomo, a little detective work can unveil some other fantastic elements that would make great topics to explore in a Brownian type novel. I've done exactly that in my ebook, Inside Dan Brown's Inferno, from which I've selected just eight topics below that I think Dan Brown will likely feature in his book – if he doesn't, you'd almost have to feel that he hasn't done his homework…
Dan Brown's novels are often seen as 'giving the bird' to the Catholic Church, and in Inferno he has the opportunity to use the middle finger of one of the greatest scientists in history. If Dan Brown's main character Robert Langdon ends up at the Galileo Museum, bordering the Arno River, he could point out a number of historical treasures, including Galileo's telescope, through which the genius Florentine discovered the moons of Jupiter and the phases of Venus, both of which offered support for the (at the time) heretical Copernican theory that the Earth revolved around the Sun. But perhaps more fitting of a Dan Brown novel are the three fingers of the great man, preserved within elegant egg-shaped glass containers, that are on display in the museum. Will Galileo point the way for Langdon to solve a puzzle?
The publication date for Dan Brown's Inferno is May 14, 2013, or 5.14.13. Turn that around, and you get 3.14.15, the first five digits of pi.* Add to that the fact that a cryptic clue on Dan Brown's website is comprised of the words 'Tarty Sect' and we definitely start wondering whether Pythagoras and sacred geometry are going to feature in some way: 'Tarty Sect' could be rewritten Pie Sect, a pun suggesting the Pythagorean cult, and what's more 'Tarty Sect' is an anagram of 'Tectractys' - the symbol of the Pythagoreans, a triangle made of subsequent lines of 1 point, 2 points, 3 points and 4 points.* A number of the great Renaissance minds of Florence held Pythagoras in great esteem, so there's definitely a link worth exploiting there for Dan Brown. Additionally, the number 33, often linked to the Pythagoreans, ... Read More »
Cat Vincent recently reviewed The Forbidden Book, by Joscelyn Godwin, Guido Mina di Sospiro, for us here on TDG. And Cat makes it plain in his review that the book was not up his alley. But I've also heard from others whose opinion I trust that they enjoyed the book, so - as with most books, music and movies - there's no doubt plenty of subjectivity involved with opinions. So, in the interests of fairness, above is the video trailer for The Forbidden Book, which features some of the praise given to the novel. If you've read the book, feel free to comment below with your own thoughts, or below Cat's original review.