Where we attempt to fill you in on everything they forgot to teach you at school

Graham Hancock on the Joe Rogan Experience

Our good friend, alternative history author (and fiction novelist) Graham Hancock stopped by the JRE podcast today and had an extended chat with Joe Rogan about everything from psychedelics to newly discovered ancient megalithic sites that will be explored in his upcoming 'sequel' to his groundbreaking 1995 book Fingerprints of the Gods.

As always with the JRE podcast, NSFW language warning.

I'm Not Saying It Was Dentists, But...

King Pacal at the dentist

At last, the truth about King Pacal. The man wasn't piloting a spaceship...he just had some wisdom teeth to pull.

(via @Brandtkofton)

Help Solve the Mystery of Ancient African Coins Found in Australia

Last month I posted a story about the mystery of ancient African coins discovered in northern Australia. In 1944, Royal Australian Air Force serviceman Maurie Isenberg discovered five coins dating back to Africa in the 12th century on a beach, some 10,000km (and 900 years) from their point of origin. How they got there is unknown.

For those interested in finding the answer to the mystery, you can now become a part of a crowd-funding project that aims to solve the puzzle, and which will document every step of the journey:

We call ourselves the 'Past Masters' and we are a multidisciplinary team of anthropologists, archaeologists, historians, and enthusiastic members of the public. We are affiliated with Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), the University of Melbourne, the Australian National University, and other institutions. Working closely with traditional Aboriginal Australians, sea rangers, and members of Norforce, a predominantly Aboriginal army unit, we seek answers to the mystery of the discovery of ancient African coins 8,000 miles from Kilwa (Tanzania) in north Australia in 1944.

Was an African or Arab or a Portuguese shipwreck implicated? Marooned Indonesian sailors? Had Aborigines traveled to Kilwa in days of old?
Our preliminary site survey of the remote Wessels Islands received global publicity in June 2013. In more than 20 countries, hundreds of television, radio, and newspaper articles were posted. CNN, Huffington Post, NBC, BBC, Channel Islam International, China Post, French Tribune, Voice of Russia, Der Speigel, Radio Australia and Radio New Zealand, and others covered the story. Our expedition has captured the imagination of people everywhere.

The standard view of Australian history is that British explorer Captain James Cook discovered the land Downunder in 1770. What these African coins suggest is that Australia has a far older history and that indigenous Australians were a part of the vast Indian Ocean maritime silk route that linked East Africa, Arabia, Persia, India, China and Indonesia. With your help, in our major expedition planned for Summer 2014 (the Australian Winter) we can put an end to the prevailing and outdated 'myth of isolation' and help reveal an infinitely richer past involving many peoples over the millennia. We seek answers in a search for shipwrecks, in an analysis of ancient rock art, and in the stories of the Dreaming.

Link: Solve the Mystery of Australia’s African Coins

Graham Hancock Visits the Ancient Megalithic Site of Göbekli Tepe

Alternative history author Graham Hancock is currently researching a follow-up to his bestselling book Fingerprints of the Gods, and he recently visited a site that surely would have been in that book if its age was known at the time: the Turkish megalithic site of Göbekli Tepe, which is thought to be a (mind-shattering) 12,000 years old. The above short video, filmed and edited by Hugh Newman last month during the 'Origins of Civilization' tour organised by Megalithomania and Andrew Collins, has some nice images of the site, as well as some commentary from Graham and Andrew.

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Mark Twain in Nikola Tesla's Laboratory in 1894

Mark Twain in Nikola Tesla's Laboratory

Your double dose of awesome for today: a photo of Mark Twain visiting Nikola Tesla's laboratory in 1894. The image is a ten-minute (!) time-lapse photograph taken for an article in the Century, and in it Twain illuminates one of Tesla's wireless light globes:

Refining his theory on wireless communication, the inventor realized that electrical energy could be transmitted in two distinctly different ways, one as radiation through the air, and the other as conduction through the ground. Today this difference corresponds to FM and AM radio.

...Tesla began to realize that he could design vacuum tubes which would respond only when a precise combination of two or more circuits were being triggered. One of the lamps held by Twain was illuminated in this manner, its dual circuit triggered by a correspopnding dual circuit created by two cables laid around the room.

Source: Wizard: The Life and Times of Nikola Tesla

(h/t @Memizon and @History_Pics)

The Mystical Origins of Zero

Indian representation of zero (image by Alex Bellos)

British writer Alex Bellos has written a fascinating piece for the Guardian ("Nirvana by Numbers") which explores the possible mystical origins of one of the most important 'inventions' in mathematics: the number zero:

India was not the only civilization to have a place value number system. Babylon and China did too. But India revolutionized numbers by adding the second piece of the jigsaw: the number zero.

Place value systems require a strategy to describe the case when there is nothing in a position. The Babylonians used a marker to represent nothing; the Chinese used a space to represent nothing.

Only the Indians introduced a symbol, 0, and treated it as if it was a normal digit just like all the others from 1 to 9. Invention of the number zero was possibly the greatest conceptual leap in the history of mathematics.

But why did the Indians make this leap and not China or Babylon? My trip to India, for a BBC radio documentary, was to investigate why this was the case.

India made another contribution to world culture as well as zero: the idea of nirvana, the transcendent state of "nothingness", when you are liberated from suffering and desires. In fact, the word used in philosophical texts to mean nothing, or the void, is "shunya", the same word later used to mean zero.

For George Gheverghese Joseph, a maths historian at the University of Manchester, the invention of zero happened when an unknown Indian mathematician about two thousand years realized that "this philosophical and cultural concept would also be useful in a mathematical sense."

Renu Jain, professor of mathematics at Jiwaji University in Gwalior, was my guide at the temple. She agreed that Indian ideas of spiritual nothingness led to mathematical zero. "Zero denotes nothing. But in India it was derived from the concept of shunya. Shunya means a sort of salvation," she said. "When all our desires are nullified, then we go to nirvana or shunya or total salvation."

In the modern world it is common to see religion and science as always in conflict. Yet in ancient India, one cannot untangle mathematics and mysticism.

You can listen to Alex Bellos' full 28 minute radio documentary on the topic at the BBC website.

Full Article: Nirvana By The Numbers

Altxerri Cave Paintings: Pushing Back Europe's History (even) Further

When the cave paintings in Altamira were first discovered in the XIXth century, there were many historians who labeled them as a hoax, scoffing at the notion that men of the Stone Age could have not only the intelligence, but also the artistic refinement to create images of such a life-like quality. Later, when the age of the paintings was finally confirmed, the famous painter Pablo Picasso visited the cave located in northern Spain & said “after Altamira, everything is decadence,” as a way to express his respects for the mastery of the anonymous artist(s) who decided to create a time-capsule of their natural environment.

Since then, even older cave paintings have been discovered throughout Europe, including the equally famous cave of Lascaux (France) & Chauvet, which with an age of 30-32,000 years were considered the oldest representation of pictorial art in Europe... until now.

A team of archeologists from the Cantabria University in Spain have just announced that the cave paintings in the Altxerri cave system --located in the Basque country, and originally discovered in 1962-- are approximately 39,000 years old, 3000 years older than Altamira. To give you a sense of perspective, that's the same number of years separating us from the biblical king David!

The investigation was launched in 2011 when Cantabria University members Aitor Ruiz and César González decided to concentrate on the upper Altxerri B gallery to date the paintings there. “It became immediately apparent that we were dealing with a completely independent grouping from the lower gallery,” noted Ruiz. It was then determined that a chronology for Altxerri B should be established. Diego Garate, a specialist in Upper Paleolithic cave art from the University of Toulouse, was brought on board.

As it was not possible to use the paintings for a direct dating – because they consist of non-organic material – the team employed other indicators such as bone fragments discovered in the gallery. A separate geological study showed that the mineral and other deposits in the cave, which had been sealed for thousands of years, were also different to those in the lower gallery, “which supports the dating of the paintings.”

Would this new discovery force us to push back the arrival of modern humans into the Old Continent, or does it simply indicate Cro-Magnons arrived to a level of sophistication we hadn't credited them with at a much early age?

...Or better yet: could these paintings be the work of those other humans inhabiting Europe, the 'brutish' Neanderthals?

All I know is that the tale of our origins is being edited & re-written more quickly than a soap opera. We've still got a lot to learn about the days of our (ancestors') lives.

PyramidLand: The Plan to Turn the Giza Pyramids into an Amusement Park

Great Pyramid Amusement Park Ride

Forget replacing the lost capstone on the Great Pyramid with a gold pyramidion to celebrate the rise of the Masonic New World Order. This sounds like an altogether much more sane plan:

Do you ever look at the ancient pyramids in Egypt and think, "Why isn't there a gigantic carnival ride on top of those?" Well, you wouldn't be alone. Because somebody asked that very question in 1931.

In a series of illustrations under the bold headline, "Mammoth Flying Swing to Give Bird's Eye Pyramid View," we see the pyramids as they could have been — the main attractions in Giza's own version of Disneyland.

Signed by Art Williamson in the June 1931 issue of Modern Mechanics and Invention magazine, the illustrations show three cars swirling around the top of a pyramid, driven by a huge electric motor. Judging from the pictures, it looks like would-be riders first had to get about two-thirds of the way up the pyramid. The thrill seekers then were supposed to board the ride by crossing a gangplank that gives me vertigo just looking at it.

More information and images at Gizmodo.

Link: The 1931 Plan To Turn The Pyramids Into an Amusement Park

The Guidestones: Georgia’s Own Doomsday Stonehenge Monument

The Georgia Guidestones

Discover Magazine has a feature on the enigmatic Georgia Guidestone, the modern megalithic monument just outside of the town of Elberton that some have dubbed the American Stonehenge:

The nearly twenty-foot granite slabs, known as the Georgia Guidestones, have sparked controversy around the world—praised by Yoko Ono, defaced by conspiracy theorists, featured on the History Channel, and the subject of the conspiracy web series Guidestones. The monument – five upright stones topped by a capstone – weighs nearly 240,000 pounds and is inscribed in eight languages with ten instructions for humans post-apocalypse. Three decades after being erected, the monument’s true purpose is still being argued, and its quasi-commandments can seem either sincere or satanic.

Regular readers will know that I've written previously about what the "true purpose" of the monument likely is (see "Beyond the Apocalypse"): it was probably inspired by Masonic legends about the construction of stone monuments that could transmit knowledge to a post-apocalyptic world. Given the time that the monument was created, it seems likely that R.C. Christian (or a group he represented) were concerned about nuclear war ending civilisation, and so made their own megalithic 'book' for survivors of any war.

But ignorance and deluded paranoia persist:

One of the monument’s most prominent conspiracy theorists is computer analyst Van Smith, of Arkansas. His website, Van’s Hardware, offers extensive analysis of the stones.

“The purpose of the monument’s ten edicts,” Smith wrote me by email, “is to establish the groundwork for a totalitarian global government. The proportions of the stones predict the exact height in feet of Dubai’s Burj Khalifa, now the world’s tallest building. Both the Guidestones and the Burj allude to the Tower of Babel. Also be aware that there is a supposed to be a time capsule buried a few feet west of the monument… According to the story, the capsule is only to be opened when signs are made obvious by the monument of an impending global cataclysm. And the North Star sighting hole is probably the feature that was intended for detecting the feared cataclysmic event, if the story I was told is true. The hole is similar to a device created by the Hopi to detect a similar calamity.”

An interesting piece of news in the feature though is that banker Wyatt Martin - the man who dealt with R.C Christian in commissioning an building the monument, and is therefore the only man to know who he really was - has destroyed all the documentation that was in his possession. A few years back I was shocked when the location of these documents was made public by Wired, and hoped that they were moved. Martin went one step further though: “Last year I went with a few friends over to an old bridge on Lake Oconee and we dumped all correspondence associated with the Guidestones into a metal barrel and burned them. Then we poured the ashes into the lake. It’ll never be known."

The Discover article ends negatively though, quoting an astronomer as saying "the astronomical features of the Guidestones are mediocre at best...the Guidestones are an abacus compared to Stonehenge’s computer. They’re very ordinary." Again, I think that's missing the point of what the stones were meant to convey: information about the era in which we lived in, by anchoring to solar and stellar markers, for the education of future, post-apocalyptic generations.

Link: Georgia's Own Stonehenge Doomsday Monument (Discover Magazine)

Link: Beyond the Apocalypse: Myths and Legends Concerning the Georgia Guidestones

Antediluvian World: Sunken Myths and Realities

Atlantis Map

Aeon Magazine has a wonderful piece on humanity's fascination with stories of submerged civilisations, and the surprising 'modern' discovery that ancient peoples did once walk the plains beneath our seas:

In 1931, a trawler called the Colinda sank its nets into the North Sea, 25 miles off the coast of Norfolk, and dredged up an unlikely artefact — a handworked antler, 21cm long, with a set of barbs running along one side. Archeologists identified it as a prehistoric harpoon and dated it to the Mesolithic age, when sea levels around Britain were more than 100 metres lower than they are today, and the island’s sunken rim, at least according to some, was a fertile plain.

As long ago as the 10th century, astute observers noted that Britain’s coastlines were fringed with trees, visible only at low tide. Traditionally, the ‘drowned forests’ were regarded as evidence of Noah’s flood — relics of an antediluvian world whose destruction is recorded in the most enduring of all the stories of great floods that sweep the earth and drown its people. At the beginning of the 20th century, another explanation was proposed by the geologist Clement Reid. In his book Submerged Forests (1913), Reid argued that ‘nothing but a change in sea level will account’ for the position of trees stretching from the high water mark ‘to the level of the lowest spring tide’. Observations on the east coast of England led him to conclude that the Thames and Humber estuaries were once ‘flanked by a plain, lying some 40-60 feet below the modern marsh surface’.

Turning his attention to a substance known as ‘moorlog’, dredged up from the bed of the North Sea at Dogger Bank, Reid identified nothing less than a time capsule. Moorlog consists of the compacted remains of animal bones, shells, wood, and lumps of peat, and Reid’s sample contained a variety of bones, including bear, wolf, hyena, bison, mammoth, beaver, walrus, elk and deer. He concluded that ‘Noah’s woods’ once stretched far beyond the shore, with Dogger Bank forming the ‘edge of a great alluvial plain, occupying what is now the southern half of the North Sea, and stretching across to Holland and Denmark’.

The Colinda antler appeared to confirm Reid’s theory, for it came from a freshwater deposit, meaning that it had not been dropped by a sea voyager, but by someone living in the landscape. According to Vincent Gaffney, Simon Fitch and David Smith — the trio of archaeologists at the University of Birmingham who have made the most sustained attempts to build on Reid’s research — this was ‘the first real evidence that the North Sea had been part of a great plain inhabited by the last hunter-gatherers in Europe’.

The area, now called Doggerland, was gradually submerged as the last Ice Age came to an end, and the melting glaciers raised sea levels. Only around 5,500 BCE did Britain finally become an island. The rediscovery of the great plain that formerly connected it to mainland Europe is one of the most remarkable scientific stories of the past decade, yet there is a sense in which it should not come as a surprise at all. Doggerland addresses one of our oldest preoccupations; for we have always told stories about lost civilisations, hidden beneath the waves.

Full article: "Out of the deep", at Aeon Magazine.