Where we attempt to fill you in on everything they forgot to teach you at school

Tutankhamen's Alien Glass

In 1996 in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, Italian mineralogist Vincenzo de Michele spotted an unusual yellow-green gem in the middle of one of Tutankhamun's necklaces. The jewel was tested and found to be glass, but intriguingly it is older than the earliest Egyptian civilisation.

Working with Egyptian geologist Aly Barakat, they traced its origins to unexplained chunks of glass found scattered in the sand in a remote region of the Sahara Desert. But the glass is itself a scientific enigma. How did it get to be there and who or what made it?

...An Austrian astrochemist Christian Koeberl had established that the glass had been formed at a temperature so hot that there could be only one known cause: a meteorite impacting with Earth. And yet there were no signs of a suitable impact crater, even in satellite images.

...In 1908, a massive explosion flattened 80 million trees in Tunguska, Siberia. Although there was no sign of a meteorite impact, scientists now think an extraterrestrial object of some kind must have exploded above Tunguska. Wasson wondered if a similar aerial burst could have produced enough heat to turn the ground to glass in the Egyptian desert.

(h/t Inannawhimsey)

The Heretic Volume 3

Volume 3 of The Heretic Magazine is now available for sale, and returns with another stellar line-up of material from the likes of Robert Schoch, Tim Wallace-Murphy, Mark Oxbrow and Robert Eisenman. The Heretic is a magazine project created by two of our good friends, editor Andrew Gough and designer Mark James Foster (Mark has worked on Darklore with me, and was also the designer behind Sub Rosa, so you'll definitely get a similar vibe to some of TDG's own projects).

Our current edition contains 16 lushly designed articles written by a variety of cross disciplinary experts and subject area enthusiasts in the fields of Alternative History, Lost Civilisations and Technologies, Mysteries and Conundrums, Rennes-le-Château, the Occult, Politics, Science and more. No magazine offers more specialized esoteric content than The Heretic.

Edited and collated by Andrew Gough, Volume 3 features (alphabetically) Sol Aris, Dawn Bramadat, Miguel Conner, Peter Cresswell, Robert Eisenman, Ralph Ellis, Robert Feather, Brien Foerster, Mark Foster, Andrew Gough, Mark Oxbrow, Jack Minier, Tim Wallace-Murphy, Madlen Namro, Margaret Robertson, Robert Schoch and Richard Webster. Once again we have compiled a bumper crop of thought-provoking articles and features.

Our latest edition is available NOW in two digital formats: firstly as a multi-touch iBook for iPad and secondly as a Kindle edition. The two versions are very different and the richest experience will be gained from the iPad version. We have designed the magazine primarily for the iPad, but are also offering the Kindle edition for those readers who are interested in our content, yet do not own an iPad.

The Heretic's website has direct links for purchasing the magazine from both the iTunes store and various Amazons around the world.

[Visit The Heretic Magazine]

Secrets of the Inferno

Eight fascinating topics that should be in the next Dan Brown book

Dan Brown and his publishers have released a limited amount of information about his upcoming novel Inferno, most notably that it will be set in the Italian city of Florence, and that it will involve one of the great pieces of literature, the Inferno by Dante Alighieri (the first part of his Divine Comedy). Inside Dan Brown's Inferno Florence is a fantastic location for a novel: Dante, Michelangelo, Galileo, da Vinci and Machiavelli all hailed from the city, and as the 'birthplace of the Renaissance' under the patronage of the Medici family, it is filled with architectural and artistic treasures. But beyond some of the obvious locations, such as the great cathedral that dominates the city sky-line, the Duomo, a little detective work can unveil some other fantastic elements that would make great topics to explore in a Brownian type novel. I've done exactly that in my ebook, Inside Dan Brown's Inferno, from which I've selected just eight topics below that I think Dan Brown will likely feature in his book – if he doesn't, you'd almost have to feel that he hasn't done his homework…

Galileo's Fingers

Dan Brown's novels are often seen as 'giving the bird' to the Catholic Church, and in Inferno he has the opportunity to use the middle finger of one of the greatest scientists in history. If Dan Brown's main character Robert Langdon ends up at the Galileo Museum, bordering the Arno River, he could point out a number of historical treasures, including Galileo's telescope, through which the genius Florentine discovered the moons of Jupiter and the phases of Venus, both of which offered support for the (at the time) heretical Copernican theory that the Earth revolved around the Sun. But perhaps more fitting of a Dan Brown novel are the three fingers of the great man, preserved within elegant egg-shaped glass containers, that are on display in the museum. Will Galileo point the way for Langdon to solve a puzzle?

Galileo's Middle Finger

Sacred Geometry

The publication date for Dan Brown's Inferno is May 14, 2013, or 5.14.13. Turn that around, and you get 3.14.15, the first five digits of pi.* Add to that the fact that a cryptic clue on Dan Brown's website is comprised of the words 'Tarty Sect' and we definitely start wondering whether Pythagoras and sacred geometry are going to feature in some way: 'Tarty Sect' could be rewritten Pie Sect, a pun suggesting the Pythagorean cult, and what's more 'Tarty Sect' is an anagram of 'Tectractys' - the symbol of the Pythagoreans, a triangle made of subsequent lines of 1 point, 2 points, 3 points and 4 points.* A number of the great Renaissance minds of Florence held Pythagoras in great esteem, so there's definitely a link worth exploiting there for Dan Brown. Additionally, the number 33, often linked to the Pythagoreans, ... Read More »

Video Trailer for 'The Forbidden Book'

Cat Vincent recently reviewed The Forbidden Book, by Joscelyn Godwin, Guido Mina di Sospiro, for us here on TDG. And Cat makes it plain in his review that the book was not up his alley. But I've also heard from others whose opinion I trust that they enjoyed the book, so - as with most books, music and movies - there's no doubt plenty of subjectivity involved with opinions. So, in the interests of fairness, above is the video trailer for The Forbidden Book, which features some of the praise given to the novel. If you've read the book, feel free to comment below with your own thoughts, or below Cat's original review.

You can grab your own copy of The Forbidden Book from Amazon's Kindle store, or in a hardcover edition for just a few dollars more.

On Top of the World: Images from the Great Pyramid

Image taken from on top of the Great Pyramid

A group of Russian youths has (illegally) climbed the Great Pyramid at Giza at night, and posted some lovely photos online (such as the one above) for all of us law-abiding citizens to drool over.

I was taken by the fact that one of the images featured someone lying in almost the exact location on top of the Great Pyramid as the two ladies were standing in the photo I've posted previously from 1920 - we move through the ghosts of the past no matter where we travel. Compare the difference between skylines in the two following images: the first taken by the Russian adventurers this year, the second taken almost 100 years ago, in 1920. Cairo seems to have grown a little (especially considering the centre of Cairo is in the opposite direction)...

Looking at Khafre's Pyramid

Ladies atop the Great Pyramid

In juxtaposition, the stones on the Great Pyramid and Khafre's pyramid look not to have changed at all. As the old saying goes, "man fears time, time fears the pyramids"...

Pyramid Lines

Giza Pyramids

One of the many amazing facts about the three pyramids of the Giza Plateau in Egypt, built almost 5000 years ago, is that they are aligned remarkably accurately to the cardinal points. How do we know this? Mostly because, um, a few people measured them about a century or more ago, and we just keep repeating what they said.

But no longer do we have to rely on old, possibly inaccurate measurements! Archaeologists Clive Ruggles and Erin Nell undertook a week-long survey of the famous pyramid complex, aiming to clarify the data concerning the main three pyramids' orientation, and also determine the orientations "of as many as possible of the associated structures" surrounding them. To do so, the pair departed from the usual method of using the corners of the buildings, and instead identified a series of points along the best preserved structural segments of each side.

The result? Nell and Ruggles found that the pyramids truly were aligned very accurately to the cardinal points, that there was "only a very slight difference in orientation" between the north-south axes of the two larger pyramids at Giza, those of Khufu and Khafre (approximately 0.5 arc minutes), and that the sides of Khafre's pyramid are actually more perfectly perpendicular than those of the 'Great Pyramid' of Khufu.

But perhaps the most interesting discovery was that the east-west axis of both pyramids was even closer to "true cardinality" than the north-south axis. For many years there has been some debate as to whether the alignment of the pyramids was executed by sighting the circumpolar stars of the northern sky, or via the Sun (using noon shadows or rising point on the equinox). This debate has also sometimes been associated with a debate over Egyptian culture of that time being centered around a 'solar cult' or a 'stellar cult', with a possible change from stellar to solar between Khufu and his son Khafre (note the 're' on the end of the latter's name, denoting the Sun).

Nevertheless, Nell and Ruggles concluded that the main pyramids were probably aligned using the circumpolar stars. However, they also noted from their data that the "broader context of associated structures suggests that the east-west orientation in relation to sunrise or (in one case) sunset may have been a, or even the, key factor in many cases."

Read: "The orientations of the Giza pyramids and associated structures", published in the journal Archaeoastronomy.

Inside Dan Brown's Inferno: The Voynich Manuscript

It is well-known that Dan Brown likes to engage in fun games with his readers, often setting 'treasure hunts' through which they can get access to more information about his work than is readily available. Perhaps the most significant example was the cover of his bestselling novel The Da Vinci Code, in which a number of codes were embedded that, when solved, gave hints to the topics that would be discussed in the next book in the series. By solving these ciphers, I was able to write a book predicting the content of The Lost Symbol some five years before it was released.

With the publication date of Brown's next novel Inferno now set (which, incidentally, seems to have been deliberately chosen in order to encode the value of Pi), what can we find if we search around for other possible clues to the strange topics that Dan Brown might explore this time? Taking a look at his website, we find a number of little puzzles waiting to be solved, one of which takes this form:

Dan Brown's Voynich Code

While at first glance this square of letters and numbers might look like gibberish, it's actually quite easily solved ... Read More »

Graham Hancock Working on 'Fingerprints of the Gods Part 2'

Graham Hancock

Many regular visitors to this site were inspired by, or at least enjoyed, the 'hidden history' bestseller Fingerprints of the Gods, written by Graham Hancock. Those readers will surely be happy to hear that Graham has mentioned on Facebook that he is now working on a sequel to the book, after being inspired by a couple of recent developments:

I thought I’d share two of the developments, one in the field of archaeology, one in the field of geology, that persuaded me some years ago that it was time to begin work on a sequel to Fingerprints of the Gods. Please note, however, that what I’m going to outline in this short post is only a very small part of the much wider range of accumulated evidence I’ll present in the sequel – powerful new discoveries and new understandings in many different fields that have come to light slowly, piece by piece during the past two decades. Taken together, I believe these new findings provide overwhelming support for the thesis I put forward nearly twenty years ago in Fingerprints of a titanic global cataclysm in the window between 13,000 and 12,000 years ago, around the end of the last Ice Age, that wiped out and destroyed almost all traces of a great global civilisation of prehistoric antiquity. I’m already well ahead with the research and I aim to complete writing of the book by December 2014 and to publish in the autumn of 2015.

Emerging from mainstream science – which has so often ridiculed and dismissed my work – the first piece of evidence that made me realise there was a new story to be told was proof that north America was struck by several pieces of a giant fragmenting comet 12,900 years ago (i.e. 10,900 BC), causing an extinction-level event all around the planet, radically changing global climate and initiating the sudden and hitherto unexplained thousand-year deep-freeze right at the end of the Ice Age that geologists call the Younger Dryas.

The second early clue was the discovery in Turkey of an extraordinary 12,000-year old megalithic site called Gobekli Tepe, which is on the scale of Stonehenge but 7,000 years older than any of the other great stone circles known to history anywhere else in the world. Furthermore the best megalithic work at Gobekli Tepi is the oldest and the site was deliberately buried 10,000 years ago only to be rediscovered, and to have its importance and mysterious nature recognised long after the publication of “Fingerprints of the Gods”.

According to orthodox history, the period of 12,000 years ago (10,000 BC) is the "upper palaeolithic", i.e. before "the neolithic", and our ancestors then are only supposed to have been hunter gatherers, and incapable of large-scale stone-cutting and engineering works. Yet the scale and perfection of the 12,000-year old megaliths at Gobekli Tepe speak of a civilisation that had already accumulated -- by that date -- thousands of years of experience of working with and setting up large blocks of stone weighing in the range of 10 to 20 tons each with one piece thought to weigh 50 tons. The site appears literally out of nowhere but even the most sceptical mainstream archaeologists (who recognise its importance but have kept very quiet about its implications for the stories we tell ourselves about the origin of civilisation) now admit that there must be a very long and so-far unrevealed background to the wonders of Gobekli Tepe. That background upsets all established models of the time-line of history and directly supports the thesis of a great civilisation, lost to history between 13,000 and 12,000 years ago, that I controversially put before the public in 1995 with Fingerprints of the Gods.

While the book is still a couple of years away, Graham has another fiction novel out in June – War God, set during the Spanish Conquest of Mexico - and maintains a busy speaking schedule (see his lecture page for appearances).

Graham also notes that anybody advance-purchasing copies of the UK edition of War God can request a personally signed and dedicated bookplate from him, that he will send out to you at his own expense. See the War God section of his website for details.

The Essential Fortean Booklist - Alternative History

Fortean Library Bookshelf

Late last year our good friend Matt Staggs posted a link to the "Nervous Breakdown Reading List: Occult and High Weirdness". This got me to thinking that once the Christmas craziness had settled down, a fun project might be to compile a list of books that any Fortean should definitely have on their bookshelf. But how to approach the compilation?

My thought was that the process could be done in two-steps. Firstly, I'll put out a general call (first one below) for NOMINATIONS of books to a certain Fortean category (to simplify things a bit). From that list of nominations, a short-list will be compiled based on the number of nominations, which will then be PUT TO A VOTE to determine the order of importance. I'm thinking some parts of the process may end up being a little organic, but this should provide us with a reasonably fair end result.

This week I'm looking for nominations for the 'Alternative History' category:

Nominations have now closed! Thank you for your suggestions.

The Essential Fortean Booklist


Please list a maximum of ten books that you think are required reading/reference material for a Fortean, in the comments section below. This may be for a number of reasons, from historical/sociological importance through to scientific importance. Note: this means it does not necessarily have to be the *best* or most *scientifically valid* book on a topic - the criteria is simply that it deserves to be on the bookshelf.

Note that the number of nominations may be crucial in making the short-list, so you shouldn't decide to not post a certain book just because it has already been mentioned.

A one or two line blurb accompanying the nomination describing the reason for its importance is encouraged and appreciated (and may end up being used in the final presentation of books)!

(You will need to be registered as a Daily Grail user to nominate and vote, to avoid spammers/self-promotion/poll-crashing by external sites.)

I look forward to seeing your recommendations!

Antediluvian Europe

Antediluvian Europe

Readers of this website may well have been intrigued by the thesis in 'hidden history' author Graham Hancock's 2002 book Underworld: The Mysterious Origins of Civilization - that during the last Ice Age, sea levels were much lower, and so many traces of ancient cultures may have been lost when coastal areas were submerged when the 'big thaw' occurred. Though many academics have taken issue with the conclusions in Underworld, Hancock certainly was prescient in bringing focus to this aspect of our history, at a time when very few archaeologists were thinking along these lines.

However, in recent years more and more attention has been placed on the search for cultural traces beneath the waves. In 2009 the research network SPLASHCOS was funded "to coordinate and promote research on the underwater landscapes and archaeology of the continental shelf drowned by the sea level rise at the end of the Last Glacial.":

For most of human history on this planet — about 90 per cent of the time — sea levels have been substantially lower than at present, exposing large tracts of territory for human settlement. Europe alone would have had a land area increased by 40 per cent at the maximum sea level regression. Although this has been recognised for many decades, archaeologists have resisted embracing its full implications, barely accepting that most evidence of Palaeolithic marine exploitation must by definition be invisible, believing that nothing has survived or can be found on the seabed, and preferring instead to emphasise the opportunities afforded by lower sea level for improved terrestrial dispersal across land bridges and narrowed sea channels.

In the past decade, opinions have begun to change in response to a number of factors: evidence that marine exploitation and seafaring have a much deeper history in the Pleistocene than previously recognised; the steady accumulation of new underwater Stone Age sites and materials, amounting now to over 3000 in Europe, and often with unusual and spectacular conditions of preservation; availability of new technologies and research strategies for underwater exploration; and the growth of targeted underwater research.

Above all, it has become ever clearer that coastal regions generally support larger concentrations of population than hinterlands, with greater ecological diversity, better groundwater supplies, more equable climatic conditions, more productive conditions for plant and animal life on land, and the availability of marine resources. Since most of the great transformations of world prehistory took place when the sea level was lower than at present—including the global dispersal of archaic and anatomically modern humans, the origins of fishing and seafaring, the origins and dispersal of early farming economies, and the roots of the earliest civilisations such as those of Mesopotamia and the Aegean—it follows that existing syntheses of world prehistory are likely to be seriously incomplete.

Read more about the recent discoveries at Antiquity: "Submerged Prehistoric Archaeology and Landscapes of the Continental Shelf".

Also, for those interested, Graham Hancock's 2002 documentary, Underworld: Flooded Kingdoms of the Ice Age: